(Rev. October 2018)
Department of the Treasury
Internal Revenue Service
Give Form to the
requester. Do not
send to the IRS.
Section references are to the Internal Revenue Code unless otherwise
Future developments. For the latest information about developments
related to Form W-9 and its instructions, such as legislation enacted
after they were published, go to www.irs.gov/FormW9.
An individual or entity (Form W-9 requester) who is required to file an
information return with the IRS must obtain your correct taxpayer
identification number (TIN) which may be your social security number
(SSN), individual taxpayer identification number (ITIN), adoption
taxpayer identification number (ATIN), or employer identification number
(EIN), to report on an information return the amount paid to you, or other
amount reportable on an information return. Examples of information
returns include, but are not limited to, the following.
• Form 1099-INT (interest earned or paid)
By signing the filled-out form, you:
1. Certify that the TIN you are giving is correct (or you are waiting for a
number to be issued),
2. Certify that you are not subject to backup withholding, or
3. Claim exemption from backup withholding if you are a U.S. exempt
payee. If applicable, you are also certifying that as a U.S. person, your
allocable share of any partnership income from a U.S. trade or business
is not subject to the withholding tax on foreign partners’ share of
effectively connected income, and
4. Certify that FATCA code(s) entered on this form (if any) indicating
that you are exempt from the FATCA reporting, is correct. See What is
FATCA reporting, later, for further information.
Note: If you are a U.S. person and a requester gives you a form other
than Form W-9 to request your TIN, you must use the requester’s form if
it is substantially similar to this Form W-9.
Definition of a U.S. person. For federal tax purposes, you are
considered a U.S. person if you are:
• An individual who is a U.S. citizen or U.S. resident alien;
• A partnership, corporation, company, or association created or
organized in the United States or under the laws of the United States;
• An estate (other than a foreign estate); or
• A domestic trust (as defined in Regulations section 301.7701-7).
Special rules for partnerships. Partnerships that conduct a trade or
business in the United States are generally required to pay a withholding
tax under section 1446 on any foreign partners’ share of effectively
connected taxable income from such business. Further, in certain cases
where a Form W-9 has not been received, the rules under section 1446
require a partnership to presume that a partner is a foreign person, and
pay the section 1446 withholding tax. Therefore, if you are a U.S. person
that is a partner in a partnership conducting a trade or business in the
United States, provide Form W-9 to the partnership to establish your
U.S. status and avoid section 1446 withholding on your share of
In the cases below, the following person must give Form W-9 to the
partnership for purposes of establishing its U.S. status and avoiding
withholding on its allocable share of net income from the partnership
conducting a trade or business in the United States.
• In the case of a disregarded entity with a U.S. owner, the U.S. owner
of the disregarded entity and not the entity;
• In the case of a grantor trust with a U.S. grantor or other U.S. owner,
generally, the U.S. grantor or other U.S. owner of the grantor trust and
not the trust; and
• In the case of a U.S. trust (other than a grantor trust), the U.S. trust
(other than a grantor trust) and not the beneficiaries of the trust.
Foreign person. If you are a foreign person or the U.S. branch of a
foreign bank that has elected to be treated as a U.S. person, do not use
Form W-9. Instead, use the appropriate Form W-8 or Form 8233 (see
Pub. 515, Withholding of Tax on Nonresident Aliens and Foreign
Nonresident alien who becomes a resident alien. Generally, only a
nonresident alien individual may use the terms of a tax treaty to reduce
or eliminate U.S. tax on certain types of income. However, most tax
treaties contain a provision known as a “saving clause.” Exceptions
specified in the saving clause may permit an exemption from tax to
continue for certain types of income even after the payee has otherwise
become a U.S. resident alien for tax purposes.
If you are a U.S. resident alien who is relying on an exception
contained in the saving clause of a tax treaty to claim an exemption
from U.S. tax on certain types of income, you must attach a statement
to Form W-9 that specifies the following five items.
1. The treaty country. Generally, this must be the same treaty under
which you claimed exemption from tax as a nonresident alien.
2. The treaty article addressing the income.
3. The article number (or location) in the tax treaty that contains the
saving clause and its exceptions.
4. The type and amount of income that qualifies for the exemption
5. Sufficient facts to justify the exemption from tax under the terms of
the treaty article.
• Form 1099-DIV (dividends, including those from stocks or mutual
• Form 1099-MISC (various types of income, prizes, awards, or gross
• Form 1099-B (stock or mutual fund sales and certain other
transactions by brokers)
• Form 1099-S (proceeds from real estate transactions)
• Form 1099-K (merchant card and third party network transactions)
• Form 1098 (home mortgage interest), 1098-E (student loan interest),
• Form 1099-C (canceled debt)
• Form 1099-A (acquisition or abandonment of secured property)
Use Form W-9 only if you are a U.S. person (including a resident
alien), to provide your correct TIN.
If you do not return Form W-9 to the requester with a TIN, you might
be subject to backup withholding. See What is backup withholding,
Example. Article 20 of the U.S.-China income tax treaty allows an
exemption from tax for scholarship income received by a Chinese
student temporarily present in the United States. Under U.S. law, this
student will become a resident alien for tax purposes if his or her stay in
the United States exceeds 5 calendar years. However, paragraph 2 of
the first Protocol to the U.S.-China treaty (dated April 30, 1984) allows
the provisions of Article 20 to continue to apply even after the Chinese
student becomes a resident alien of the United States. A Chinese
student who qualifies for this exception (under paragraph 2 of the first
protocol) and is relying on this exception to claim an exemption from tax
on his or her scholarship or fellowship income would attach to Form
W-9 a statement that includes the information described above to
support that exemption.
If you are a nonresident alien or a foreign entity, give the requester the
appropriate completed Form W-8 or Form 8233.
What is backup withholding? Persons making certain payments to you
must under certain conditions withhold and pay to the IRS 24% of such
payments. This is called “backup withholding.” Payments that may be
subject to backup withholding include interest, tax-exempt interest,
dividends, broker and barter exchange transactions, rents, royalties,
nonemployee pay, payments made in settlement of payment card and
third party network transactions, and certain payments from fishing boat
operators. Real estate transactions are not subject to backup
You will not be subject to backup withholding on payments you
receive if you give the requester your correct TIN, make the proper
certifications, and report all your taxable interest and dividends on your
Payments you receive will be subject to backup withholding if:
1. You do not furnish your TIN to the requester,
2. You do not certify your TIN when required (see the instructions for
Part II for details),
3. The IRS tells the requester that you furnished an incorrect TIN,
4. The IRS tells you that you are subject to backup withholding
because you did not report all your interest and dividends on your tax
return (for reportable interest and dividends only), or
5. You do not certify to the requester that you are not subject to
backup withholding under 4 above (for reportable interest and dividend
accounts opened after 1983 only).
Certain payees and payments are exempt from backup withholding.
See Exempt payee code, later, and the separate Instructions for the
Requester of Form W-9 for more information.
Also see Special rules for partnerships, earlier.
The Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) requires a
participating foreign financial institution to report all United States
account holders that are specified United States persons. Certain
payees are exempt from FATCA reporting. See Exemption from FATCA
reporting code, later, and the Instructions for the Requester of Form
W-9 for more information.
You must provide updated information to any person to whom you
claimed to be an exempt payee if you are no longer an exempt payee
and anticipate receiving reportable payments in the future from this
person. For example, you may need to provide updated information if
you are a C corporation that elects to be an S corporation, or if you no
longer are tax exempt. In addition, you must furnish a new Form W-9 if
the name or TIN changes for the account; for example, if the grantor of a
grantor trust dies.
Failure to furnish TIN. If you fail to furnish your correct TIN to a
requester, you are subject to a penalty of $50 for each such failure
unless your failure is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect.
Civil penalty for false information with respect to withholding. If you
make a false statement with no reasonable basis that results in no
backup withholding, you are subject to a $500 penalty.
Criminal penalty for falsifying information. Willfully falsifying certifications or affirmations may subject you to criminal penalties including fines and/or imprisonment.
Misuse of TINs. If the requester discloses or uses TINs in violation of federal law, the requester may be subject to civil and criminal penalties.
You must enter one of the following on this line; do not leave this line blank. The name should match the name on your tax return.
If this Form W-9 is for a joint account (other than an account maintained by a foreign financial institution (FFI)), list first, and then circle, the name of the person or entity whose number you entered in Part I of Form W-9. If you are providing Form W-9 to an FFI to document a joint account, each holder of the account that is a U.S. person must provide a Form W-9.
Note: ITIN applicant: Enter your individual name as it was entered on your Form W-7 application, line 1a. This should also be the same as the name you entered on the Form 1040/1040A/1040EZ you filed with your application.
If you have a business name, trade name, DBA name, or disregarded entity name, you may enter it on line 2.
Check the appropriate box on line 3 for the U.S. federal tax classification of the person whose name is entered on line 1. Check only one box on line 3.
The following chart shows types of payments that may be exempt from backup withholding. The chart applies to the exempt payees listed above, 1 through 13.
IF the payment is for . . .
THEN the payment is exempt for . . .
Interest and dividend payments
All exempt payees except for 7
Exempt payees 1 through 4 and 6 through 11 and all C corporations. S corporations must not enter an exempt payee code because they are exempt only for sales of noncovered securities acquired prior to 2012.
Barter exchange transactions and patronage dividends
Exempt payees 1 through 4
Payments over $600 required to be reported and direct sales over
Generally, exempt payees 1 through 52
Payments made in settlement of payment card or third party network transactions
Exempt payees 1 through 4
1 See Form 1099-MISC, Miscellaneous Income, and its instructions.
2 However, the following payments made to a corporation and reportable on Form 1099-MISC are not exempt from backup
withholding: medical and health care payments, attorneys’ fees, gross proceeds paid to an attorney reportable under section 6045(f), and payments for services paid by a federal executive agency.
Exemption from FATCA reporting code. The following codes identify payees that are exempt from reporting under FATCA. These codes apply to persons submitting this form for accounts maintained outside of the United States by certain foreign financial institutions. Therefore, if you are only submitting this form for an account you hold in the United States, you may leave this field blank. Consult with the person requesting this form if you are uncertain if the financial institution is subject to these requirements. A requester may indicate that a code is not required by providing you with a Form W-9 with “Not Applicable” (or any similar indication) written or printed on the line for a FATCA exemption code.
A—An organization exempt from tax under section 501(a) or any individual retirement plan as defined in section 7701(a)(37)
B—The United States or any of its agencies or instrumentalities C—A state, the District of Columbia, a U.S. commonwealth or
possession, or any of their political subdivisions or instrumentalities
D—A corporation the stock of which is regularly traded on one or more established securities markets, as described in Regulations section 1.1472-1(c)(1)(i)
E—A corporation that is a member of the same expanded affiliated group as a corporation described in Regulations section 1.1472-1(c)(1)(i)
F—A dealer in securities, commodities, or derivative financial instruments (including notional principal contracts, futures, forwards, and options) that is registered as such under the laws of the United States or any state
G—A real estate investment trust
H—A regulated investment company as defined in section 851 or an entity registered at all times during the tax year under the Investment Company Act of 1940
I—A common trust fund as defined in section 584(a) J—A bank as defined in section 581
L—A trust exempt from tax under section 664 or described in section 4947(a)(1)
The IRS does not initiate contacts with taxpayers via emails. Also, the IRS does not request personal detailed information through email or ask taxpayers for the PIN numbers, passwords, or similar secret access information for their credit card, bank, or other financial accounts.
If you receive an unsolicited email claiming to be from the IRS, forward this message to firstname.lastname@example.org. You may also report misuse of the IRS name, logo, or other IRS property to the Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration (TIGTA) at 1-800-366-4484. You can forward suspicious emails to the Federal Trade Commission at email@example.com or report them at www.ftc.gov/complaint. You can contact the FTC at www.ftc.gov/idtheft or 877-IDTHEFT (877-438-4338). If you have been the victim of identity theft, see www.IdentityTheft.gov and Pub. 5027.
Visit www.irs.gov/IdentityTheft to learn more about identity theft and how to reduce your risk.
IF the entity/person on line 1 is a(n) . . .
THEN check the box for . . .
• Sole proprietorship, or
• Single-member limited liability company (LLC) owned by an individual and disregarded for U.S. federal tax purposes.
Individual/sole proprietor or single- member LLC
• LLC treated as a partnership for
U.S. federal tax purposes,
• LLC that has filed Form 8832 or 2553 to be taxed as a corporation, or
• LLC that is disregarded as an entity separate from its owner but the owner is another LLC that is not disregarded for U.S. federal tax purposes.
Limited liability company and enter the appropriate tax classification. (P= Partnership; C= C corporation; or S= S corporation)
If you are exempt from backup withholding and/or FATCA reporting, enter in the appropriate space on line 4 any code(s) that may apply to you.
The following codes identify payees that are exempt from backup withholding. Enter the appropriate code in the space in line 4.
1—An organization exempt from tax under section 501(a), any IRA, or a custodial account under section 403(b)(7) if the account satisfies the requirements of section 401(f)(2)
2—The United States or any of its agencies or instrumentalities 3—A state, the District of Columbia, a U.S. commonwealth or
possession, or any of their political subdivisions or instrumentalities
4—A foreign government or any of its political subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities
6—A dealer in securities or commodities required to register in the United States, the District of Columbia, or a U.S. commonwealth or possession
7—A futures commission merchant registered with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission
8—A real estate investment trust
9—An entity registered at all times during the tax year under the Investment Company Act of 1940
10—A common trust fund operated by a bank under section 584(a) 11—A financial institution
12—A middleman known in the investment community as a nominee or custodian
13—A trust exempt from tax under section 664 or described in section 4947
M—A tax exempt trust under a section 403(b) plan or section 457(g) plan
Note: You may wish to consult with the financial institution requesting this form to determine whether the FATCA code and/or exempt payee code should be completed.
Enter your address (number, street, and apartment or suite number). This is where the requester of this Form W-9 will mail your information returns. If this address differs from the one the requester already has on file, write NEW at the top. If a new address is provided, there is still a chance the old address will be used until the payor changes your address in their records.
Enter your city, state, and ZIP code.
Enter your TIN in the appropriate box. If you are a resident alien and you do not have and are not eligible to get an SSN, your TIN is your IRS individual taxpayer identification number (ITIN). Enter it in the social security number box. If you do not have an ITIN, see How to get a TIN below.
If you are a sole proprietor and you have an EIN, you may enter either your SSN or EIN.
If you are a single-member LLC that is disregarded as an entity separate from its owner, enter the owner’s SSN (or EIN, if the owner has one). Do not enter the disregarded entity’s EIN. If the LLC is classified as a corporation or partnership, enter the entity’s EIN.
Note: See What Name and Number To Give the Requester, later, for further clarification of name and TIN combinations.
How to get a TIN. If you do not have a TIN, apply for one immediately. To apply for an SSN, get Form SS-5, Application for a Social Security Card, from your local SSA office or get this form online at www.SSA.gov. You may also get this form by calling 1-800-772-1213. Use Form W-7, Application for IRS Individual Taxpayer Identification Number, to apply for an ITIN, or Form SS-4, Application for Employer Identification Number, to apply for an EIN. You can apply for an EIN online by accessing the IRS website at www.irs.gov/Businesses and clicking on Employer Identification Number (EIN) under Starting a Business. Go to www.irs.gov/Forms to view, download, or print Form W-7 and/or Form SS-4. Or, you can go to www.irs.gov/OrderForms to place an order and have Form W-7 and/or SS-4 mailed to you within 10 business days.
If you are asked to complete Form W-9 but do not have a TIN, apply for a TIN and write “Applied For” in the space for the TIN, sign and date the form, and give it to the requester. For interest and dividend payments, and certain payments made with respect to readily tradable instruments, generally you will have 60 days to get a TIN and give it to the requester before you are subject to backup withholding on payments. The 60-day rule does not apply to other types of payments. You will be subject to backup withholding on all such payments until you provide your TIN to the requester.
Note: Entering “Applied For” means that you have already applied for a TIN or that you intend to apply for one soon.
Caution: A disregarded U.S. entity that has a foreign owner must use the appropriate Form W-8.
To establish to the withholding agent that you are a U.S. person, or resident alien, sign Form W-9. You may be requested to sign by the withholding agent even if item 1, 4, or 5 below indicates otherwise.
For a joint account, only the person whose TIN is shown in Part I should sign (when required). In the case of a disregarded entity, the person identified on line 1 must sign. Exempt payees, see Exempt payee code, earlier.
Signature requirements. Complete the certification as indicated in items 1 through 5 below.
For this type of account:
Give name and EIN of:
14. Account with the Department of Agriculture in the name of a public entity (such as a state or local government, school district, or prison) that receives agricultural program payments
15. Grantor trust filing under the Form 1041 Filing Method or the Optional Form 1099 Filing Method 2 (see Regulations section 1.671-4(b)(2)(i)(B))
The public entity
1 List first and circle the name of the person whose number you furnish. If only one person on a joint account has an SSN, that person’s number must be furnished.
2 Circle the minor’s name and furnish the minor’s SSN.
3 You must show your individual name and you may also enter your business or DBA name on the “Business name/disregarded entity” name line. You may use either your SSN or EIN (if you have one), but the IRS encourages you to use your SSN.
4 List first and circle the name of the trust, estate, or pension trust. (Do not furnish the TIN of the personal representative or trustee unless the legal entity itself is not designated in the account title.) Also see Special rules for partnerships, earlier.
*Note: The grantor also must provide a Form W-9 to trustee of trust.
Note: If no name is circled when more than one name is listed, the number will be considered to be that of the first name listed.
Identity theft occurs when someone uses your personal information such as your name, SSN, or other identifying information, without your permission, to commit fraud or other crimes. An identity thief may use your SSN to get a job or may file a tax return using your SSN to receive a refund.
To reduce your risk:
If your tax records are affected by identity theft and you receive a notice from the IRS, respond right away to the name and phone number printed on the IRS notice or letter.
If your tax records are not currently affected by identity theft but you think you are at risk due to a lost or stolen purse or wallet, questionable credit card activity or credit report, contact the IRS Identity Theft Hotline at 1-800-908-4490 or submit Form 14039.
For more information, see Pub. 5027, Identity Theft Information for Taxpayers.
Victims of identity theft who are experiencing economic harm or a systemic problem, or are seeking help in resolving tax problems that have not been resolved through normal channels, may be eligible for Taxpayer Advocate Service (TAS) assistance. You can reach TAS by calling the TAS toll-free case intake line at 1-877-777-4778 or TTY/TDD 1-800-829-4059.
Protect yourself from suspicious emails or phishing schemes. Phishing is the creation and use of email and websites designed to mimic legitimate business emails and websites. The most common act is sending an email to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft.
Section 6109 of the Internal Revenue Code requires you to provide your correct TIN to persons (including federal agencies) who are required to file information returns with the IRS to report interest, dividends, or certain other income paid to you; mortgage interest you paid; the acquisition or abandonment of secured property; the cancellation of debt; or contributions you made to an IRA, Archer MSA, or HSA. The person collecting this form uses the information on the form to file information returns with the IRS, reporting the above information.
Routine uses of this information include giving it to the Department of Justice for civil and criminal litigation and to cities, states, the District of Columbia, and U.S. commonwealths and possessions for use in administering their laws. The information also may be disclosed to other countries under a treaty, to federal and state agencies to enforce civil and criminal laws, or to federal law enforcement and intelligence agencies to combat terrorism. You must provide your TIN whether or not you are required to file a tax return. Under section 3406, payers must generally withhold a percentage of taxable interest, dividend, and certain other payments to a payee who does not give a TIN to the payer. Certain penalties may also apply for providing false or fraudulent information.